Objective: To investigate the types of volatile flavor components and their content differences in different vinegar ages of Hexi balsamic vinegar. Methods: Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to analyze the volatile aroma components of five groups of Hexi balsamic vinegar of different years in 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021. Results: A total of 117 volatile aroma components were detected in 5 groups of Hexi balsamic vinegar of different vinegar ages, 25 alcohol substances, 13 aldehydes, 14 acids, 24 esters and 41 other (ethers, phenols, alkane heterocyclic compounds, etc.) substances, the proportion of the quantity of substances in each of the five categories of substances to the total quantity of substances is 21.4%, 11.1%, 12.0%, 20.5% and 35.0%, respectively. The volatile aroma substances of Hexi balsamic vinegar in 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021 were 29, 31, 35, 41 and 41 substances, respectively. With the prolongation of aging time, the number of alcohols showed a "W" pattern; the number of aldehydes, acids and other substances showed a rising trend before decreasing; the overall trend of the number of esters was not obvious. The relative contents of aldehydes and other substances showed an overall increasing trend; the relative contents of acids and esters showed an overall decreasing trend; the relative contents of alcohols showed an increasing and then decreasing trend. Conclusion: There were differences in the types and contents of volatile aroma components of Hexi balsamic vinegar with different vinegar ages, and the quality of Hexi balsamic vinegar in 2019 was relatively better among the five groups of samples studied.

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