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Objective: Explore the protective effect of Procambarus clarkii shell bioactive peptides (PCSBP) on oxidative stress injury in the organism. Methods: This study using alkaline protease hydrolysis method to prepare bioactive peptides and measured their antioxidant activity in vitro. Subsequently, the protective effects of PCSBP on oxidative stress injury in zebrafish under fasting stress was analyzed. Results: The PCSBP showed potential antioxidant capacity in vitro, with scavenging rates of DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals at (46.35±1.32)% and (75.22±2.18)%. The final body weight, body length and muscle amino acid content of zebrafish were decreased under fasting stress, but the growth performance and muscle amino acid content of Zebrafish were effectively improved after taking PCSBP. The muscle tissue structure showed that the myofiber gap widened and ruptured in zebrafish after fasting. The myofiber were arranged neatly, with complete morphology and structure after PCSBP ingestion, and no obvious rupture was observed. In terms of anti-oxidative stress, PCSBP significantly enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and glutathione (GSH) content in zebrafish muscle, and also decreased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC), which were oxidative damage indexes. Further analysis revealed that PCSBP significantly up-regulated the expression of antioxidant signaling molecule nrf2 mRNA, down-regulated keap1 expression, and increased the transcriptional expression of downstream antioxidant enzyme genes, which effectively ameliorated the oxidative stress damage in muscle of zebrafish. Conclusion: Bioactive peptides derived from crayfish shell has a protective effect on oxidative stress injury in zebrafish and can be used as a potential antioxidant.

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