Article Title

Effects of dehydration methods on the volatile components of lemon slices with GC-IMS


Objective:In order to investigate the effects of freeze drying (FD), air drying (AD), infrared drying (IRD) and vacuum drying (VD) on volatile components content of lemon slices.Methods:Gas chromatography-ion mobility spectroscopy (GC-IMS) was used in this study, and the principal components analysis was performed to analyze the volatile components of lemon slices exposed to different drying methods.Results:72 kinds of volatile components were detected in fresh lemon slices treated with FD, AD, IRD and VD, and their contents were different in the slices treated with FD, AD, IRD and VD, which influenced the flavor of lemon slices., including 20 terpenes, 16 esters, 13 aldehydes, 13 alcohols, 7 ketones, 2 acids and 1 furan. Comparing with fresh lemon (Control), and treating with 4 kinds of drying methods, the contents of volatile alcohols and esters decreased, the contents of aldehydes increased, while the contents of terpenes remained stable. The results of fingerprint spectra showed that IRD and AD treatments had better retention effect on ethyl butyrate and methyl acetate, and the contents of furfural and hexal increased. PCA results showed that fresh lemon slices were significantly different from dry lemon slices, and heat map clustering showed that IRD treatment was similar to AD and VD treatment.Conclusion:Compared with other drying methods, IRD treatment had a better retention effect on the ester volatile components of lemon slices, which is 11%~27% higher than other treatments. Meanwhile, the content of marker volatile aldehydes increased more, which is 53% higher than that of fresh lemon, which has a positive effect on the flavor of lemon slices. This study will provide a reference for flavor quality control of lemon slices during drying process.

Publication Date


First Page


Last Page





[1] United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service.Citrus:World Markets and Trade[EB/OL].(2021-07-22)[2022-02-28].https://fas.usda.gov/report-release-announcement/citrus-world-markets-and-trade.
[2] RIKHOTSO Muriel Mbhoni,MAGWAZA Lembe Samukelo,TESFAY Samson Zeray,et al.Evaluating the efficacy of chitosan and CMC incorporated with moringa leaf extracts on reducing peteca spot incidence on 'Eureka' lemon[J].Journal of Food Science and Technology,2019,56(11):5 074-5 086.
[3] ZCAN Mehmet Musa,GHAFOOR Kashif,AL JUHAIMI Fahad,et al.Influence of drying techniques on bioactive properties,phenolic compounds and fatty acid compositions of dried lemon and orange peel powders[J].Journal of Food Science and Technology,2021,58:147-158.
[4] 王海鸥,谢焕雄,陈守江,等.不同干燥方式对柠檬片干燥特性及品质的影响[J].农业工程学报,2017,33(14):292-299.WANG Hai-ou,XIE Huan-xiong,CHEN Shou-jiang,et al.Effect of different drying methods on drying characteristics and qualities of lemon slices[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering,2017,33(14):292-299.
[5] 杜腾飞,赵丽娟,王丹丹,等.柠檬片真空远红外干燥特性及对品质的影响[J].天津科技大学学报,2019,34(3):22-26,33.DU Teng-fei,ZHAO Li-juan,WANG Dan-dan,et al.Drying characteristics and product quality of lemon slice under vacuum far-infrared drying[J].Journal of Tianjin University of Science & Technology,2019,34(3):22-26,33.
[6] 高炜,张群,王蓉蓉,等.干燥方式对柠檬片中游离态、结合态多酚及抗氧化特性的影响[J].中国食品学报,2019,19(6):106-115.GAO Wei,ZHANG Qun,WANG Rong-rong,et al.Impact of dehydration methods on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of lemon slices[J].Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology,2019,19(6):106-115.
[7] 周琦,彭林,陈厚荣.响应面法优化柠檬片微波真空干燥工艺[J].食品与发酵工业,2018,44(4):186-193.ZHOU Qi,PEN Lin,CHEN Hou-rong.Optimization of microwave vacuum drying process for lemon slices by response surface methodology[J].Food and Fermentation Industries,2018,44(4):186-193.
[8] 王忠合,王军,林倩仪.超声辅助热风干燥柠檬片的动力学研究及其维生素C含量的变化[J].中国食品学报,2020,20(4):187-196.WANG Zhong-he,WANG Jun,LIN Qian-yi.Studies on kinetics of ultrasound-assisted hot air drying lemon slices and changes in vitamin C content[J].Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology,2020,20(4):187-196.
[9] 张莉会,廖李,安可婧,等.干燥方式对果蔬风味物质影响研究进展[J].食品工业科技,2018,39(18):315-319.ZHANG Li-hui,LIAO Li,AN Ke-jing,et al.Research progress on influence of drying methods on flavor substance of fruits and vegetables[J].Science and Technology of Food Industry,2018,39(18):315-319.
[10] 马擎.海南柠檬特色产品加工关键技术研发及应用[D].哈尔滨:黑龙江东方学院,2019.MA Qin.Development and application of key technologies for processing Hainan lemon specialty products[D].Harbin:East University of Heilongjiang,2019.
[11] 谢焕雄,胡志超,王海鸥,等.真空冷冻干燥对柠檬挥发性风味化合物保留的影响[J].农业工程学报,2018,34(22):282-290.XIE Huan-xiong,HU Zhi-chao,WANG Hai-ou,et al.Effect of vacuum freeze-drying methods on retention of volatile flavor compounds of lemon[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering,2018,34(22):282-290.
[12] 庞雯辉,赵希娟,陈西,等.超高效液相色谱—四极杆—飞行时间高分辨质谱法快速筛查柠檬果实中的生物活性成分[J].食品与发酵工业,2021,47(4):222-230,235-237.PANG Wen-hui,ZHAO Xi-jun,CHEN Xi,et al.Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry method for rapid screening of bioactive compounds in lemon fruits[J].Food and Fermentation Industries,2021,47(4):222-230,235-237.
[13] GE Shuai,CHEN Yu-yu,DING Sheng-hua,et al.Changes in volatile flavor compounds of peppers during hot air drying process based on headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry(HS-GC-IMS)[J].Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture,2020,100(7):3 087-3 098.
[14] QI He-ting,DING Sheng-hua,PAN Zhao-ping,et al.Characteristic volatile fingerprints and odor activity values in different citrus-tea by HS-GC-IMS and HS-SPME-GC-MS[J].Molecules,2020,25(24):6 027.
[15] 李湘,江靖,李高阳,等.GC-IMS结合化学计量学分析不同采后处理对柑橘果皮挥发性化合物的影响[J].食品科学,2021,42(20):128-134.LI Xiang,JIANG Jing,LI Gao-yang,et al.Effects of different postharvest treatments on volatile compounds in citrus peel analyzed by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry combined with chemometrics[J].Food Science,2021,42(20):128-134.
[16] 何朝飞,冉玥,曾林芳,等.柠檬果皮香气成分的GC-MS分析[J].食品科学,2013,34(6):175-179.HE Chao-fei,RAN Yue,ZENG Lin-fang,et al.Analysis of aroma components from peels of different lemon varieties by GC-MS[J].Food Science,2013,34(6):175-179.
[17] REGA Barbara,FOURNIER Nicole,GUICHARD Elisabeth.Solid phase microextraction(SPME)of orange juice flavor:Odor representativeness by direct gas chromatography olfactometry(D-GC-O)[J].Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2003,51(24):7 092-7 099.
[18] 何朝飞,张耀海,田景华,等.套袋对柠檬香气成分的影响[J].食品科学,2013,34(4):144-149.HE Chao-fei,ZHANG Yao-hai,TIAN Jing-hua,et al.Effect of bagging on aroma components in lemons[J].Food Science,2013,34(4):144-149.
[19] TATUM James H,NAGY Steven,BERRY Robert E.Degradation products formed in canned single-strength orange juice during storage[J].Journal of Food Science,1975,40(4):707-709.
[20] HAO Jing,XU Xiao-lin,JIN Feng,et al.HS-SPME GC-MS characterization of volatiles in processed walnuts and their oxidative stability[J].Journal of Food Science and Technology,2020,57(7):2 693-2 704.
[21] 金文刚,赵萍,刘俊霞,等.基于气相—离子迁移色谱结合化学计量学分析大鲵肉烤制过程中挥发性风味成分[J].食品与发酵工业,2021,47(21):231-239.JIN Wen-gang,ZHAO Ping,LIU Jun-xia,et al.Volatile flavor components analysis of giant salamander(Andrias davidiauns)meat during roasting process based on gas chromatography-ion mobility spectroscopy and chemometrics[J].Food and Fermentation Industries,2021,47(21):231-239.
[22] 陈峰,李鹤东,王亚棋,等.化学计量学方法在食品分析中的应用[J].食品科学技术学报,2017,35(3):1-15.CHEN Feng,LI He-dong,WANG Ya-qi,et al.Applications of chemometrics in food analysis[J].Journal of Food Science and Technology,2017,35(3):1-15.
[23] LI Meng-qi,YANG Rui-wen,ZHANG Hao,et al.Development of a flavor fingerprint by HS-GC-IMS with PCA for volatile compounds of Tricholoma matsutake Singer[J].Food Chemistry,2019,290:32-39.
[24] LAWRENCE Brian M.Progress in essential oils[J].Perfumer & Flavorist,2011,36(11):52-58.

This document is currently not available here.