The essential oil components in the fresh peels of Eureka Lemon from three main producing regions (Sichuan, Yunnan and Guangdong) were extracted by steam distillation extraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC—MS). The results indicated that 47, 41 and 39 kinds of compounds were identified in the peels of C_EUR, D_EUR, Y_EUR, and occupied 98.47%, 98.74% and 97.64% of total peak areas, respectively. Three tested samples gave priority to with terpenes, alcohols and aldehydes compounds, but alcohols and aldehydes existed obvious difference. Among the contents of 20 common components was relatively higher, including D-Limonene, γ-Terpinene, α-Terpineol, Terpinen-4-ol and Citral. There were 17, 9, 12 kinds of diagnostic components in C_EUR, D_EUR and Y_EUR, respectively. In comparison, there were significant differences in components types and content among the three Lemon samples, which can be used as the important characteristics for each other and provided scientific basis for integrated utilization and geographical origin of lemon in three producing areas.

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