Report on protein cross-linking mechanism of soy-wheat Chinese steamed bread treated with azodicarbonamide (ADA) was less while it was known as quality improvement agent of wheat flour. The content of free thiol (—SH) was determined by DTNB method. Meanwhile, size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE—HPLC) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) were used to analyze the content of sodium dodecyl sulfate extractable proteins (SDSEP）and gluten network respectively. In addition, the specific loaf volume of soy-wheat Chinese steamed bread was determined by rapeseed displacement method. TPA was used to test the texture and the software Image J was applied to analyze the pore structure of soy-wheat Chinese steamed bread treated. The result showed that ADA reduced the content of —SH, which meant that the —S—S— content was increased. The SDSEP content was decreased and the extent of protein cross-linking was increased. ADA could promote proteins aggregating into dense and uniform network. Gelatinized starches were warped by protein framework. Moreover, ADA made no significant effect on specific loaf volume and also increased the hardness, gumminess and chewiness. The gas cell counts were increased, and average size and average friction of gas cells were decreased, along with the forming of uniform, dense and small pore structure. In combining the greater protein polymerization with the better quality characteristics of soy-wheat Chinese steamed bread, it indicated that there was inner relationship between protein cross-linking and the final quality characteristics of soy-wheat Chinese steamed bread.
Sha, LIU; Xiaona, GUO; Kexue, ZHU; Gang, LIU; and Huiming, ZHOU
"Mechanism of azodicarbonamide’s impact on protein cross-linking and quality of soy-wheat Chinese steamed bread,"
Food and Machinery: Vol. 32:
4, Article 3.
Available at: https://www.ifoodmm.cn/journal/vol32/iss4/3
 李景明. 食品营养强化技术[M]. 北京: 化学工业出版社, 2006: 92-99.
 朱青葵. 小麦粉的化学成分及营养强化[J]. 产品可靠性报告, 2008(5): 54-56.
 Roccia P, Ribotta P D, Ferrero C, et al. Enzymes action on wheat-soy dough properties and bread quality[J]. Food & Bioprocess Technology, 2010, 5(4): 1 255-1 264.
 Li Meng-hua, Guo Xiao-yu, Wang Hui,et al. Rapid and label-free raman detection of azodicarbonamide with asthma risk[J]. Sensors & Actuators B Chemical, 2015, 216: 535-541.
 刘钟栋. 面粉制品的品质改良技术[M]. 北京: 化学工业出版社, 2013: 61-95.
 王远成, 任凌云, 张鹏涛. 偶氮甲酰胺对面粉粉质及面包质量的影响[J]. 中国粮油学报, 2001, 16(1): 32-35.
 陈波, 靳保辉, 林燕奎, 等. 面粉中偶氮甲酰胺含量的高效液相色谱法测定[J]. 分析测试学报, 2008, 27(9): 1 002-1 004.
 林慧珏, 滕月斐, 梁建芬. 小麦粉自由巯基(—SH)测定方法的对比研究[J]. 食品科技, 2011, 36(5): 286-290.
 Luo Li-jun, Guo Xiao-na, Zhu Ke-xue. Effect of steaming on the quality characteristics of frozen cooked noodles[J]. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 2015, 62(2): 1 134-1 140.
 罗云. 蛋清粉对挂面品质的影响及其机理研究[D]. 无锡: 江南大学, 2015.
 杨健, 赵康, 周君华. 面团pH对馒头膨松效果的影响[J]. 食品工业科技, 2002, 23(8): 28-29.
 盛琪. 馒头的常温保鲜研究[D]. 无锡: 江南大学, 2015: 9-11.
 韩薇薇, 郭晓娜, 朱科学, 等. 水溶性胶体对无麸质面团流变学特性及面包品质的影响[J]. 中国粮油学报, 2015, 30(2): 15-19.
 Wang Pei, Chen Hai-ying, Mohanad B, et al. Effect of frozen storage on physico-chemistry of wheat gluten proteins: Studies on gluten-, glutenin- and gliadin-rich fractions[J]. Food Hydrocolloids, 2012(9): 187-194.
 李里特, 江正强, 卢山. 焙烤食品工艺学[M]. 北京: 中国轻工业出版社, 2000: 23-25.
 Osborne T B. The proteins of the wheat kernel[M]. Carnegie: Inst Washington Pub, 1907: 84-119.
 Chrastil J, Zarins Z M. Influence of storage on peptide subunit composition of rice oryzenin[J]. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 2002, 40(6): 927-930.
 Lagrain B, Brijs K, Veraverbeke W S, et al. The impact of heating and cooling on the physico-chemical properties of wheat gluten-water suspensions[J]. Journal of Cereal Science, 2005, 42(3): 327-333.
 Stathopoulos C E, Tsiami A A, Schofield J D, et al. Effect of heat on rheology, surface hydrophobicity and molecular weight distribution of glutens extracted from flours with different bread-making quality[J]. Journal of Cereal Science, 2008, 47(2): 134-143.
 骆丽君. 冷冻熟面加工工艺对其品质影响的机理研究[D]. 无锡: 江南大学, 2015: 20-25.
 Luo Yun, Li Man, Zhu Ke-xue, et al. Heat-induced interaction between egg white protein and wheat gluten[J]. Food Chemistry, 2016, 197(Pt A): 699-708.
 Renzetti S, Courtin C M, Delcour J A, et al. Oxidative and proteolytic enzyme preparations as promising improvers for oat bread formulations: Rheological, biochemical and microstructural background[J]. Food Chemistry, 2010, 119(4): 1 465-1 473.
 Halima N B, Borchani M, Fendri I, et al. Optimised amylases extraction from oat seeds and its impact on bread properties[J]. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2015, 72: 1 213-1 221.
 冯世德, 孙太凡. 玉米粉对小麦面团和馒头质构特性的影响[J]. 食品科学, 2013, 34(1): 101-104.
 Joiner R R, Vidal F D, Marks H C, et al. A new powdered agent for flour maturing[J]. Cereal Chemistry, 1963, 40: 539-553.
 谢宏, 原蓼蓼, 李丹丹, 等. 含二硫键的稻米蛋白质对米饭蒸煮食味品质的影响[J]. 食品科技, 2012, 37(9): 139-142.
 Bert L, Thewissen B G, Kristof B, et al. Impact of redox agents on the extractability of gluten proteins during bread making[J]. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 2007, 55(13): 5 320-5 325.
 Steertegem B V, Pareyt B, Brijs K, et al. Impact of mixing time and sodium stearoyl lactylate on gluten polymerization during baking of wheat flour dough[J]. Food Chemistry, 2013, 141(4): 4 179-4 185.
 Moore M M, Heinbockel M, Dockery P, et al. Networkformation in gluten-free bread with application of transglutaminase[J]. Cereal Chemistry, 2006, 83(1): 28-36.
 Singh H, Macritchie F. Changes in proteins induced by heating gluten dispersions at high temperature[J]. Journal of Cereal Science, 2004, 39(2): 297-301.
 Lagrain B, Thewissen B G, Brijs K, et al. Mechanism of gliadin-glutenin cross-linking during hydrothermal treatment[J]. Food Chemistry, 2008, 107(2): 753-760.