In order to reveal the preference and adaptability of different cellulose-producing species for the carbon source, the influences of carbon sources on Komagataeibacter spp. (K. nataicola, K. hansenii and K. europaeus) for growth, metabolism and BC synthesis were studied. The main results were as follows: the BC production was the largest by K. europaeus with fructose as the carbon source, while K. nataicola and K. hansenii with glucose as the carbon source. In addition, the results showed that the ability to synthesize BC by different species was not consistent with the cell biomass, gluconic acid and carbon source consumption, and it indicated that the carbon source consumption and the BC production were not necessary to be relevant to cell growth, but to be properly balanced. Therefore, it is not only very necessary to select the appropriate carbon source for different species, but also can provide a useful reference for the selection of suitable species and improving the utilization efficiency of the specific raw materials for BC production.

Publication Date


First Page


Last Page





[1] Yamada Y. Transfer of Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti, Gluconacetobacter medellinensis and Gluconacetobacter maltaceti to the genus Komagataeibacter as Komagataeibacter kakiaceti comb. nov., Komagataeibacter medellinensis comb. nov. and Komagataeibacter maltaceti comb. nov. [J]. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2014, 64(5): 1 670-1 672.
[2] Akasaka N, Ishii Y, Hidese R, et al. Enhanced production of branched-chain amino acids by Gluconacetobacter europaeus with a specific regional deletion in a leucine responsive regulator [J]. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 2014, 118(6): 607-615.
[3] Bi Ji-cai, Liu Si-xin, Li Cong-fa, et al. Morphology and structure characterization of bacterial celluloses produced by different strains in agitated culture [J]. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2014, 117(5): 1 305-1 311.
[4] Mohite B V, Patil S V. Physical, structural, mechanical and thermal characterization of bacterial cellulose by G. hansenii NCIM 2529 [J]. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2014, 106: 132-141.
[5] Tanskul S, Amornthatree K, Jaturonlak N. A new cellulose-producing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. MI 2: Screening and optimization of culture conditions [J]. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2013, 92(1): 421-428.
[6] Chao Y, Sugano Y, Shoda M. Bacterial cellulose production under oxygen-enriched air at different fructose concentrations in a 50-liter, internal-loop airlift reactor [J]. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2001, 55(6): 673-679.
[7] Mikkelsen D, Flanagan B M, Dykes G A, et al. Influence of different carbon sources on bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain ATCC 53524 [J]. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2009, 107(2): 576-583.
[8] Santos S M, Carbajo J M, Villar J C. The effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on bacterial cellulose production and properties from Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans CECT 7291 focused on its use in degraded paper restoration [J]. BioResources, 2013, 8(3): 3 630-3 645.
[9] Mohammadkazemi F, Azin M, Ashori A. Production of bacterial cellulose using different carbon sources and culture media [J]. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2015, 117: 518-523.
[10] Sarkar D, Yabusaki M, Hasebe Y, et al. Fermentation and metabolic characteristics of Gluconacetobacter oboediens for different carbon sources [J]. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2010, 87(1): 127-136.
[11] Zeng Xiao-bo, Small D P, Wan Wan-kei. Statistical optimization of culture conditions for bacterial cellulose production by Acetobacter xylinum BPR 2001 from maple syrup [J]. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2011, 85(3): 506-513.
[12] Andres-Barrao C, Saad M M, Chappuis M L, et al. Proteome analysis of Acetobacter pasteurianus during acetic acid fermentation [J]. Journal of Proteomics, 2012, 75(6): 1 701-1 717.
[13] Zhong Cheng, Zhang Gui-cai, Liu Miao, et al. Metabolic flux analysis of Gluconacetobacter xylinus for bacterial cellulose production [J]. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2013, 97(14): 6 189-6 199.
[14] Keshk S M. Vitamin C enhances bacterial cellulose production in Gluconacetobacter xylinus [J]. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2014, 99: 98-100.
[15] Trcek J, Jernejc K, Matsushita K. The highly tolerant acetic acid bacterium Gluconacetobacter europaeus adapts to the presence of acetic acid by changes in lipid composition, morphological properties and PQQ-dependent ADH expression [J]. Extremophiles, 2007, 11(4): 627-635.
[16] Ross P, Mayer R, Benziman M. Cellulose biosynthesis and function in Bacteria[J]. Microbiological Reviews, 1991, 55(1): 35-58.

Included in

Food Science Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.